Newtonian Science


The realm of Art & Design has been challenging for the establishment of research procedures as well as methodologies on account of the fact that historically, it has had a brief span in comparison with other fields. Art & Design need to comprehend and borrow three antecedent existing methodologies as ‘standard’ methodologies called ‘Science’ and ‘Social Sciences’, in order to appropriately build a new research methodology, based on these.

The first research strategy I want to look at briefly is Newtonian Science which is based on logical experimentation generally characterised as systematic, rigorous, controlled, deductive, predictive, positivistic, empirical. There were eminent scholars such as Galileo, Copernicus, Descartes, Bacon and Newton who encouraged the scientific model of research.

Newton who was an English physicist and mathematician theorised Newtonian Science, based on the mechanistic view of a ‘Clockwork Universe’. The definition of clockwork universe is that an image of the universe as a clock wound up by God and ticking along with its gears governed by the laws of physics ( In his perspective, like a clock, Space is scientifically run by a fundamental principle which is possible to calculate in the laws of physics, established by assembling a large number of components from others such as Galileo. The reductive analysis is enough to develop science in general.

However, specifically, in order to study human behaviour, It is narrowly focused on a particular problem which can be overlooked when we look at the whole.

Undoubtedly, this methodology help Art & Design industries suitably establish their own research procedure. BUT, Art & Design are highly close with social science, and there are a large number of situations we cannot easily anticipate. THUS, we need to make our own research procedures and methodologies, based on the Newtonian Science in some ways.

Design participation tactics – Yanki Lee


I strongly sympathise with the second one mentioned this paper, which is an article related to design participation tactics written by Yanki Lee. More design researches are being conducted by outsiders (other experts, not designers) than insiders (designers). This situation is inducing that more design, especially design participation, is concerned with the effects and influence of designing than its form which is hugely important in design. As mentioned above, if there is more professional designer involvement, user research could become more creative in the near future.

Yanki, L. (2007) Design participation tactics: the challenges and new roles for designers in the co-design process.